Phi-TEC II | Bench-top, low phi-factor, adiabatic calorimeter - H.E.L Group

Phi-TEC II | Bench-top, low phi-factor, adiabatic calorimeter

The Phi-TEC II is an adiabatic calorimeter, which supports the use of low Phi-factor test cells. This allows for manufacturing plant conditions to be fully replicated on a lab-scale thus allowing thermal runaway risks to be simulated and assessed. Utilizing low-Phi factor cells means that the runaway rate is not tempered by the test equipment, and subsequently, the measured rate of pressure increase and final temperature (Tend) – along with the calculated Time to Maximum Rate (TMRd) and adiabatic temperature rise (∆Tad,d) – are representative of what would be expected to occur during a production-scale incident

The impact of different operating scenarios can be explored using the Phi-TEC II, and the data generated can be utilized to determine appropriate safety controls for the manufacturing plant, such as:

  • Emergency and evaporation cooling
  • Quenching
  • Controlled depressurization
  • Vent sizing (in accordance with DIERS methodology)

Thus, the Phi-TEC II enables hazards to be fully evaluated, enabling their mitigation prior to scale-up.

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Hazard and Operability Assessment

Plant-scale parameters from the laboratory

The Phi-TEC II is a more advanced type of adiabatic calorimeter, which supports the use of low Phi factor test cells. This capability means that very little of the heat produced during a reaction or thermal runaway is consumed in warming the test cell. As a result, the runaway rate is not tempered.

The measured rate of pressure increase and final temperature (Tend), along with the calculated Time to Maximum Rate (TMR) and adiabatic temperature rise (ΔTad), are representative of what would be expected to occur during a manufacturing scale incident. Thus, the Phi-TEC II enables the hazards to be fully evaluated and explored, facilitating their mitigation prior to scale-up.

Safety by design

The data generated by the Phi-TEC II can be used to directly compare the impact of different operating scenarios. From this, the necessary safety controls for the manufacturing plant can be selected. Examples of these are:

  • Emergency and evaporation cooling
  • Quenching
  • Controlled depressurization
  • Vent sizing (in accordance with DIERS methodology)

Test Cells Types and Volumes

  • Thin-walled, 10ml to 110 ml, low Phi-factor test cells.
  • Also compatible with standard ARC-type high Phi-factor test cells, up to 10 ml volume.

Temperature Control

  • Ambient to 500°C.

High Pressure and Vacuum Systems

  • Pressure range 1 to 137 bar.

Sampling Systems

  • Optional: gas sampling.

Reagent Addition

  • Optional: High-pressure liquid feed pump for dosing of a critical ingredient at a controlled rate to the reaction vessel.
  • Optional: High-pressure injector for rapid addition of a critical ingredient to the test cell, replicating plant-scale conditions.

Stirring available

  • Indirect agitation with magnetic stirrer bar as standard; fixed stirring rate of 300 rpm.
  • Optional: Direct overhead stirring available for metal test cells for effective agitation of highly viscous samples.

Intelligent Software Control and Analysis

  • labCONSOL software control enables regular data logging, multi-step recipes, parameter control, and feedback loops. The software adds a responsive intelligence to the Phi-TEC II system and still delivers an intuitive interface that needs only minimal training to run quickly.
  • Customizable standard plans allow for easy running of the system with automated heating, detection of gas generation, and safety steps
  • Optional: High data rate acquisition available for characterizing extremely fast reactions (up to 10 000 Hz).
  • Optional: Bespoke testing methods.

Safety Features

  • Automatic, user-configurable, event monitoring and shutdown procedures if a safety condition is exceeded to ensure user safety.
  • Automatic hardware and software fail-safes are installed on every system.



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