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TSu | Thermal and Pressure Hazard Screening Platform

The fast screening of thermal and pressure hazards can be performed with the Thermal Screening Unit (TSu). It typically uses samples of 0.5 to 5g to generate both temperature and pressure data, and hence can be considered a better alternative to classical DSC/DTA methods.

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The TSu typically finds application in:

  • Thermal reaction screening of reaction hazards in process scale-up
  • thermal stability studies on the reaction waste stream

This is due to its ability to characterize sample pressure changes in addition to thermal behavior, and its capability in supporting relatively large sample measurements.

For effective reaction hazard screening, two critical pieces of data are needed:

  • the onset temperature (Td) of the reaction- where the exotherm is detected
  • the pressure generated by the resultant runaway

Secondary thermal runaway risk

If the MTSR (Maximum Temperature of the Synthesis  )  is greater than the onset temperature (Td) of a component within the reaction mix, an undesired side reaction or decomposition may be triggered, possibly leading to a secondary thermal runaway.

In addition to considering thermal stability, it is also vital to screen for pressure hazards.  Some of the most hazardous reaction mixes are those which involve the production of non-condensable gases. The TSu provides critical information on the associated pressure change, which is vital for assessing the over-pressurization hazard.

The TSu’s ability to support relatively large volume measurements (0.5 ml to 10 ml), enables representative samples of the reaction mix to be screened and reliable data to be determined for the reactants, intermediates, and products in the reaction mix. The test cells are available in a variety of materials, enabling a range of sample types to be tested. The test cells are also fully compatible with the Phi-TEC I and Phi-TEC II.  This facilitates data comparison and method transfer between the instruments, should the initial hazard assessment on the TSu highlight that a secondary thermal runaway is likely, and that it is necessary to screen the hazard more thoroughly adiabatically.

Features and Options

Operating Modes

The principle operation is a simple oven temperature ramp (0.5-10 ° C/min), with sample temperature and pressure allowed to vary independently. Exotherm and gas evolutions are indicated by a spike in the sample Temperature and/or Pressure traces.

Additional operating modes are available as standard including

  • Isothermal (stability)
  • Dual-Scan
  • Soak & Scan


Multiple Units:

Several Thermal Screening Units can be used in parallel, running from the same computer. This is a cost-effective method of screening large numbers of samples. The compact design of the instrument makes it easy to fit several units into a standard fume cupboard.

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Download Our Process Safety and Scale-up Brochure

Download Our Specification Book For Process Safety and Scale-up


The following are a list of some technical publications which highlight the use of the equipment.

A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine

Gianmaria Pio, Paolo Mocellin, Chiara Vianello, Ernesto Salzano


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125641(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Continuous Safety Improvements to Avoid Runaway Reactions: The Case of a Chloro-Thiadiazole Intermediate Synthesis toward Timolol

Alessandro Agosti, Silvia Panzeri, Federico Gassa, Massimo Magnani, Giulia Forni, Marco Quaroni, Lazzaro Feliciani and Giorgio Bertolini


https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00048(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Explosion Hazards of Sodium Hydride in Dimethyl Sulfoxide, N,N-Dimethylformamide, and N,N-Dimethylacetamide

Qiang Yang, Min Sheng, James J. Henkelis, Siyu Tu, Eric Wiensch, Honglu Zhang, Yiqun Zhang, Craig Tucker, and David E. Ejeh


https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00276(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Thermal behaviour of Peracetic Acid for the epoxydation of vegetable oils in the presence of catalyst

Chiara Vianello, Ernesto Salzano, Giuseppe Maschio


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2018.03.030(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Safety Parameters and Preliminary Decomposition Kinetic of Organo-Peroxy Acids in Aqueous Phase

Chiara Vianello, Ernesto Salzano , Giuseppe Maschio*


https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1543396(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Thermal Decomposition Analysis and Safety Study on Di-tert-butyl Peroxide

Lv Jiayu, Chen Wanghua, Chen Liping, Tian Yingtao, Sun Xin


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.08.054(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

2-Bromo-3-(cyclohexyloxy)acrylaldehyde: An Isolable Enol Ether of Bromomalonaldehyde Suitable for Use in the Manufacture of Imidazolecarboxaldehydes

Terrence J. Connolly*, Michael W. Disharoon, Vladimir Dragan, Joseph J. Lewis, Peter Wehrenberg, and Ralph Zhao


http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/op100156y?src=recsys(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Aminodifluorosulfinium Salts: Selective Fluorination Reagents with Enhanced Thermal Stability and Ease of Handling

Alexandre L’Heureux, Francis Beaulieu, Christopher Bennett, David R. Bill, Simon Clayton, François LaFlamme, Mahmoud Mirmehrabi, Sam Tadayon, David Tovell, and Michel Couturier


https://doi.org/10.1021/jo100504x(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

A Convenient and Stable Synthon for Ethyl Azide and Its Evaluation in a [3 + 2]-Cycloaddition Reaction under Continuous-Flow Conditions

Rob Tinder, Roger Farr, Richard Heid, Ralph Zhao, Randy S. Rarig, Jr., and Thomas Storz


https://doi.org/10.1021/op900078t(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Safety Concerns Regarding the Transportation of Organic Powders on Dry Ice: How CO 2 Adsorption Can Lead to Powder Spills

Wim Dermaut*, Jan van Dun, Jan De Kock, Ivan Vervest, and Christine Fannes


https://doi.org/10.1021/op700280z(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Nitrilase-Catalysed Desymmetrisation of 3-Hydroxyglutaronitrile:  Preparation of a Statin Side-Chain Intermediate

Sophie Bergeron, David A. Chaplin, John H. Edwards, Brian S. W. Ellis, Catherine L. Hill, Karen Holt-Tiffin, Jonathan R. Knight, Thomas Mahoney, Andrew P. Osborne, and Graham Ruecroft


https://doi.org/10.1021/op050257n(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

Critical Assessment of Pharmaceutical Processes A Rationale for Changing the Synthetic Route

Mike Butters, David Catterick, Andrew Craig, Alan Curzons, David Dale, Adam Gillmore, Stuart P. Green, Ivan Marziano, Jon-Paul Sherlock, and Wesley White


https://doi.org/10.1021/cr050982w(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)

A Comparison of Reaction Hazard Screening Techniques

D. J. Dale


https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/op025592f(Subscription or purchase maybe required for full access)